Выбор участка

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Выбор участка
Выбор участка и правильная его подготовка — основные этапы устройства огорода, к которым следует подойти с должной серьезностью.

Например, если планируемая под огород земля располагается на теневой стороне рядом с холмом или же относится к заболоченной зоне, большинство полезных растений на ней будет гибнуть.

Оптимальным вариантом является освещение участка в течение всего светового дня или хотя бы большей его части (с 13 до 18 часов).

Поверхность будущего огорода также имеет огромное значение.

Ровный грунт будет равномерно прогреваться солнцем и увлажняться естественными осадками, немного сложнее выращивать огородные культуры на пологом склоне большого холма (в подобных случаях иногда целесообразно устанавливать террасы или ярусы с грядками в виде контейнеров).

Северные склоны холмов для огородничества малопригодны, поскольку почва на них нагревается медленно, растения развиваются с опозданием.

Идеальным вариантом для устройства огорода является участок недалеко от берега природного водоема, а также плоская верхняя часть пологого холма.

Именно в указанных зонах суточная температура выше, чем на окружающих площадях, время заморозков отодвигается на несколько суток, что позволяет без лишней спешки собрать осенний урожай.

После выбора подходящего участка необходимо обратить внимание на дренаж почвы (беспрепятственное прохождение влаги через слои грунта).

Тяжелые глинистые почвы и суглинки накапливают воду, которая нередко застаивается и закисает.

Гнилостные процессы, протекающие в толще грунта, отрицательно влияют на развитие корневой системы травянистых огородных растений, вызывают замедление роста, приводят к развитию различных заболеваний и даже гибели культур.

Кроме того, глинистые частицы затрудняют естественный газообмен. Для предотвращения тяжелых последствий перед посевом семян рекомендуется провести улучшение механического состава почвы путем добавления необходимого количества песка.

Иногда огород устраивают на небольшом свободном месте земли рядом с плодовыми деревьями и ягодными кустарниками.

Подобная планировка приусадебного участка выглядит рационально, но она не всегда целесообразна.

Высокие раскидистые деревья неизбежно будут затенять грунт на значительной площади, и огородные растения станут плохо расти в условиях дефицита освещения.

Если же деревья расположенны с северной стороны по отношению к грядкам, данный вариант оформления участка окажется оптимальным: нежные травянистые насаждения получат защиту от холодного северного ветра, при этом затенение почвы будет минимальным.

Следует обратить внимание и на наличие постоянного источника воды — центрального водопровода, колодца, водоразборной колонки или природного водоема.

Огородные растения требуют регулярного полноценного полива, особенно в летний период, когда возникает угроза засухи.

Если участок имеет большую площадь, а центральное водоснабжение отсутствует, целесообразно предусмотреть приобретение нагнетающего насоса для колодца или водоема — длинные грядки очень трудно увлажнять с помощью лейки.

Отсутствие воды неизбежно приведет к отмиранию части растений, резкому уменьшению осеннего урожая и другим крайне нежелательным последствиям.

Если воду на участок подают по определенному графику (данная особенность характерна для садоводческих товариществ), необходимо купить металлическую емкость достаточного объема, чтобы для полива огорода всегда имелся достаточный запас влаги.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

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